tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-33491730508236011912018-08-28T05:29:54.317-07:00Civil War Battle HistoryEasy to understand overviews, summaries, character breakdowns, and details about 10 important Civil War battles.John Dhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/08877708667095519724noreply@blogger.comBlogger56125tag:blogger.com,1999:blog-3349173050823601191.post-22428686530522438072012-01-10T21:28:00.000-08:002012-01-11T09:59:07.970-08:00Civil War Battle History<span style="font-weight: bold;font-size:180%;" >List of 10 Civil War Battles:<br /><span style="font-size:130%;"><br /></span></span><li><span style="font-size:130%;"><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/11/battle-of-antietam.html"><b>Battle of Antietam</b></a></span></li><ul><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2012/01/battle-of-antietam-overiew.html"><b>Battle of Antietam: Overview</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2012/01/battle-of-antietam-summary.html"><b>Battle of Antietam: Summary</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2012/01/battle-of-antietam-characters.html"><b>Battle of Antietam: Characters</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2012/01/battle-of-antietam-details.html"><b>Battle of Antietam: Details</b></a></li></ul><p><br /></p><li><span style="font-size:130%;"><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/11/battle-of-chancellorsville.html"><b>Battle of Chancellorsville</b></a></span></li><ul><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2012/01/battle-of-chancellorsville-overview.html"><b>Battle of Chancellorsville: Overview</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2012/01/battle-of-chancellorsville-summary.html"><b>Battle of Chancellorsville: Summary</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2012/01/battle-of-chancellorsville-characters.html"><b>Battle of Chancellorsville: Characters</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2012/01/battle-of-chancellorsville-details.html"><b>Battle of Chancellorsville: Details</b></a></li><br /></ul><li><span style="font-size:130%;"><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/11/battle-chickamauga.html"><b>Battle of Chickamauga</b></a></span></li><ul><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-chickamauga-overview.html"><b>Battle of Chickamauga: Overview</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-chickamauga-summary.html"><b>Battle of Chickamauga: Summary</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-chickamauga-characters.html"><b>Battle of Chickamauga: Characters</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2012/01/battle-chickamauga-details.html"><b>Battle of Chickamauga: Details</b></a></li><br /></ul><li><span style="font-size:130%;"><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/11/battle-fort-donelson.html"><b>Battle of Fort Donelson</b></a></span></li><ul><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-of-fort-donelson-overview.html"><b>Battle of Fort Donelson: Overview</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-of-fort-donelson-summary.html"><b>Battle of Fort Donelson: Summary</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-of-fort-donelson-characters.html"><b>Battle of Fort Donelson: Characters</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-of-fort-donelson-details.html"><b>Battle of Fort Donelson: Details</b></a></li><br /></ul><li><span style="font-size:130%;"><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/11/battle-of-gettysburg.html"><b>Battle of Gettysburg</b></a></span></li><ul><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-of-gettysburg-overview.html"><b>Battle of Gettysburg: Overview</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-of-gettysburg-summary.html"><b>Battle of Gettysburg: Summary</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-of-gettysburg-characters.html"><b>Battle of Gettysburg: Characters</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-of-gettysburg-details.html"><b>Battle of Gettysburg: Details</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-of-gettysburg-trivia.html"><b>Battle of Gettysburg: Trivia</b></a></li><br /></ul><li><span style="font-size:130%;"><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/11/battle-of-shiloh.html"><b>Battle of Shiloh</b></a></span></li><ul><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-of-shiloh-overview.html"><b>Battle of Shiloh: Overview</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-of-shiloh-summary.html"><b>Battle of Shiloh: Summary</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-of-shiloh-characters.html"><b>Battle of Shiloh: Characters</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-of-shiloh-details.html"><b>Battle of Shiloh: Details</b></a></li><br /></ul><li><span style="font-size:130%;"><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/11/battle-spotsylvania-court-house.html"><b>Battle of Spotsylvania Court House</b></a></span></li><ul><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-spotsylvania-court-house_15.html"><b>Battle of Spotsylvania Court House: Overview</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-spotsylvania-court-house-summary.html"><b>Battle of Spotsylvania Court House: Summary</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-spotsylvania-court-house.html"><b>Battle of Spotsylvania Court House: Characters</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-spotsylvania-court-house-details.html"><b>Battle of Spotsylvania Court House: Details</b></a></li><br /></ul><li><span style="font-size:130%;"><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/11/battle-of-stones-river.html"><b>Battle of Stones River</b></a></span></li><ul><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-stones-river-overview.html"><b>Battle of Stones River: Overview</b></a></li><br /><li><b><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-stones-river-summary.html">Battle of Stones River: Summary</a><br /></b></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-stones-river-characters.html"><b>Battle of Stones River: Characters</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-stones-river-details.html"><b>Battle of Stones River: Details</b></a></li><br /></ul><li><span style="font-size:130%;"><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/11/battle-of-wilderness.html"><b>Battle of the Wilderness</b></a></span></li><ul><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-of-wilderness-overview.html"><b>Battle of the Wilderness: Overview</b></a></li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-of-wilderness-summary.html"><br /></a><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-of-wilderness-summary.html"><b>Battle of the Wilderness: Summary</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-of-wilderness-characters.html"><b>Battle of the Wilderness: Characters</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-of-wilderness-details.html"><b>Battle of the Wilderness: Details</b></a></li><br /></ul><li><span style="font-size:130%;"><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/11/second-battle-bull-run.html"><b>Second Battle of Bull Run</b></a></span></li><ul><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/second-battle-bull-run-overview.html"><b>Second Battle of Bull Run: Overview</b></a></li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/second-battle-bull-run-summary.html"><br /></a><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/second-battle-bull-run-summary.html"><b>Second Battle of Bull Run: Summary</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/second-battle-bull-run-characters.html"><b>Second Battle of Bull Run: Characters</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/11/second-battle-bull-run-details.html"><b>Second Battle of Bull Run: Details</b></a></li><br /></ul>John Dhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/08877708667095519724noreply@blogger.comtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-3349173050823601191.post-89685279935211685732012-01-09T21:43:00.000-08:002012-01-11T10:19:36.057-08:00Battle of Antietam Overiew<u>BATTLE OF ANTIETAM (September 16-18 1862 <b>DRAW</b>)</u><br /><em>This was the first major battle in the Civil War that took place on Northern soil. This battle occurred Sharpsburg, Maryland and resulted in 23,100 casualties. While the result was inconclusive, it did give a strategic advantage to the union.</em><br /><br /><b>When?</b><br /><br />September 17, 1862<br /><br /><b>Where?</b><br /><br />Sharpsburg, Maryland (Maryland/Virginia border)<br /><br /><b>Who won the Battle of Antietam?</b><br /><br />The Battle of Antietam was a draw.<br /><br /><b>Why is this important?</b><br /><br />This was the first major battle in the Civil War that took place on Northern soil. <span style="font-weight: bold;">Bloodiest single-day battle in American history</span>, with about 23,000 casualties.<br /><br /><b>What happened?</b><br /><br />After pursuing Confederate General Robert E. Lee into Maryland, Union Army Maj. Gen.George B. McClellan launched attacks against Lee's army, in defensive positions behind Antietam Creek.<br /><br /><span style="font-weight: bold;font-size:130%;" ><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other </span><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/11/battle-of-antietam.html">Battle of Antietam</a></span><span style="font-size:130%;"><span style="font-weight: bold;"> sections:</span></span><div class="post-body entry-content" id="post-body-2242868653052243807"><ul><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2012/01/battle-of-antietam-summary.html"><b>Battle of Antietam: Summary</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2012/01/battle-of-antietam-characters.html"><b>Battle of Antietam: Characters</b></a></li><br /><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2012/01/battle-of-antietam-details.html"><b>Battle of Antietam: Details</b></a></ul></div>John Dhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/08877708667095519724noreply@blogger.comtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-3349173050823601191.post-55516396874472000892012-01-09T02:58:00.000-08:002012-01-11T14:14:23.936-08:00Link to Civil War Battle HistoryIf you've found this website interesting <span style="font-weight: bold;">(maybe you just liked the </span><span style="font-weight: bold;">video above)</span> or even if you don't like this website but want to do something nice for a stranger (us), <span style="font-weight: bold;">please link to this website from your own website or blog.<span style="font-weight: bold;"><span style="font-weight: bold;"><br /></span></span></span><br />If you don't have a website <span style="font-weight: bold;">please Like us on Facebook or Tweet about this site</span> and the cool video above. We've conveniently placed <span style="font-weight: bold;">Facebook and Twitter buttons below</span> ... every little bit helps.<br /><br />We're not selling anything (<span style="font-weight: bold;">look - no ads</span>) or soliciting monetary donations.<br /><br />We had fun putting this website together and are having just as much fun trying to get the word out about our little project here.<br /><br /><span style="font-weight: bold;">Thanks in advance for helping us spread the word.</span><br /><!-- AddThis Button BEGIN --><br /><div class="addthis_toolbox addthis_default_style "><br /><a class="addthis_button_facebook_like" layout="button_count"></a><br /><a class="addthis_button_tweet"></a><br /><a class="addthis_button_google_plusone" size="medium"></a><br /><a class="addthis_counter addthis_pill_style"></a><br /></div><br /><script type="text/javascript" src="http://s7.addthis.com/js/250/addthis_widget.js#pubid=xa-4f0e08124ec2801b"></script><br /><!-- AddThis Button END -->John Dhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/08877708667095519724noreply@blogger.comtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-3349173050823601191.post-76813446653166740852012-01-08T21:49:00.000-08:002012-01-11T10:05:01.587-08:00Battle of Antietam: Summary<b>Battle</b><br /><ul><li>At dawn on September 17, Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker's (Union) corps mounted a powerful assault on Lee's (Confederate) left flank. <b>Attacks and counterattacks swept across Miller's cornfield and fighting swirled around the Dunker Church.</b></li><br /><li><b>Indescribable destruction in a massive cornfield stalemate battle.</b></li><br /><li>Union Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnside's corps entered the action, <b>capturing a stone bridge</b> over Antietam Creek and advancing against the Confederate right.</li><br /><li>At a <b>crucial moment</b>, Confederate Maj. Gen. A.P. Hill's division arrived from Harpers Ferry and launched a <b>surprise counterattack</b>, driving back Burnside and ending the battle.</li><br /><li>Although <b>outnumbered two-to-one</b>, Lee committed his entire force, while McClellan sent in less than three-quarters of his army, enabling Lee to fight the Federals to a standstill.</li><br /><li><b>Lee's invasion of Maryland was ended</b>, and he was able to withdraw his army back to Virginia without interference.</li><br /></ul><b>Aftermath</b><br /><ul><li>The battle was over by 5:30 p.m.</li><br /><li>Although the battle was tactically inconclusive, it had significance as enough of a victory to <b>give President Abraham Lincoln the confidence to announce his Emancipation Proclamation, which discouraged the British and French governments from potential plans for recognition of the Confederacy.</b></li></ul><p><span style="font-weight: bold;font-size:130%;" ><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other </span><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/11/battle-of-antietam.html">Battle of Antietam</a></span><span style="font-size:130%;"><span style="font-weight: bold;"> sections: </span></span></p><div class="post-body entry-content" id="post-body-2242868653052243807"><ul><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2012/01/battle-of-antietam-overiew.html"><b>Battle of Antietam: Overview</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2012/01/battle-of-antietam-characters.html"><b>Battle of Antietam: Characters</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2012/01/battle-of-antietam-details.html"><b>Battle of Antietam: Details</b></a></li></ul></div>John Dhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/08877708667095519724noreply@blogger.comtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-3349173050823601191.post-87083289568765425472012-01-07T21:52:00.000-08:002012-01-11T10:05:13.308-08:00Battle of Antietam: Characters<b>Characters</b><br /><br /><b><u>Union</u></b><br /><br /><b>1) Union Army Maj. Gen.George B. McClellan (Union)</b><br /><ul><li>Despite significant advantages in manpower, McClellan was unable to concentrate his forces effectively</li><br /><li>McClellan was unwilling to employ his ample reserve forces to capitalize on localized successes.</li><br /><li>McClellan wired to Washington, "Our victory was complete. The enemy is driven back into Virginia." Yet there was obvious disappointment that McClellan had not crushed Lee, who was fighting with a smaller army</li><br /><li>McClellan was nominated by the Democrats to run against Abraham Lincoln in the 1864 U.S. presidential election.</li><br /><li>In October 1859 McClellan was able to resume his courtship of Ellen Marcy, and they were married in Calvary Church, New York City, on May 22, 1860.</li><br /></ul><b>2) Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker (Union)</b><br /><ul><li>Fought with distinction at Antietam</li><br /><li>After the war in Cincinnati he married Olivia Groesbeck, sister of Congressman William S. Groesbeck.</li><br /></ul><b>3) Union Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnside (Union)</b><br /><br /><ul><li>Namesake for sideburns</li><br /><li>Burnside was given command of the "Right Wing" of the Army of the Potomac</li><br /><li>Burnside refused to give up his higher authority to McClellan and funneled orders to the corps through other commanders. This cumbersome arrangement contributed to his slowness in attacking and crossing what is now called "Burnside's Bridge" on the southern flank of the Union line.</li><br /><li><b>Burnside did not perform adequate reconnaissance of the area</b>, and instead of taking advantage of several easy fording sites out of range of the enemy, his troops were forced into <b>repeated assaults across the narrow bridge which was dominated by Confederate sharpshooters on high ground.</b> By noon, McClellan was losing patience. He sent a succession of couriers to motivate Burnside to move forward. He ordered one aide, <b>"Tell him if it costs 10,000 men he must go now."</b> He increased the pressure by sending his inspector general to confront Burnside, who reacted indignantly: <b>"McClellan appears to think I am not trying my best to carry this bridge; you are the third or fourth one who has been to me this morning with similar orders."</b> The delay allowed Maj. Gen. A.P. Hill's Confederate division to come up from Harpers Ferry and repulse the Union breakthrough. <b>McClellan refused Burnside's requests for reinforcements</b>, and the battle ended in a tactical stalemate.</li><br /><li>In 1852, he was assigned to Fort Adams, Newport, Rhode Island, and, while there, he <b>married Mary Richmond Bishop of Providence, Rhode Island, on April 27. The marriage, which lasted until Burnside's death, was childless.</b></li><br /></ul><b>4) Maj. Gen. Joseph Mansfield (Union)</b><br /><ul><li><b>Took command only two days before this battle.</b> Although he was a veteran of 40 years' service, he had never led large numbers of soldiers in combat.</li><br /><li>Mansfield himself was <b>shot in the stomach and died the next day (at this battle). He was 58.</b></li><br /><li>He was <b>white-haired and white-bearded, but had a vigorous manner that belied his age</b>. His officers considered him <b>nervous and fussy</b>, but his men, many of whom were new <b>recruits, liked him well enough due to his shows of blustery enthusiasm and fatherly assurance.</b></li><br /></ul><u><b>Confederate</b></u><br /><br /><b>5) Confederate Maj. Gen. A.P. Hill (Confederate)</b><br /><ul><li>Had a <b>reputation of arriving on battlefields just in to prove decisive and achieve victory</b> (including this battle).</li><br /></ul><b>6) Maj. Gen. Stonewall Jackson (Confederate)</b><br /><ul><li>Jackson's men bore the brunt of the initial attacks on the northern end of the battlefield and, at the end of the day, <b>successfully resisted a breakthrough on the southern end</b> when Jackson's subordinate, Maj. Gen. A.P. Hill, arrived at the last minute from Harpers Ferry. The Confederate forces held their position, but the battle was extremely <b>bloody for both sides</b></li><br /></ul><b>Misc.</b><br /><br /><b>7) William Corby (Misc.)</b><br /><ul><li>a <b>priest of the Congregation of Holy Cross. Corby is perhaps best known for his giving general absolution on the battle field.</b></li><br /><li>also served twice as President of the University of Notre Dame. The school's Corby Hall is named for him</li><br /><li>Widely remembered among military chaplains and celebrated by Irish-American fraternal organizations, his statue with right hand raised in the gesture of blessing was the first statue of a non-general erected on the Gettysburg Battlefield.</li></ul><span style="font-weight: bold;font-size:130%;" ><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other </span><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/11/battle-of-antietam.html">Battle of Antietam</a></span><span style="font-size:130%;"><span style="font-weight: bold;"> sections: </span></span><div class="post-body entry-content" id="post-body-2242868653052243807"><ul><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2012/01/battle-of-antietam-overiew.html"><b>Battle of Antietam: Overview</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2012/01/battle-of-antietam-summary.html"><b>Battle of Antietam: Summary</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2012/01/battle-of-antietam-details.html"><b>Battle of Antietam: Details</b></a></li></ul></div>John Dhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/08877708667095519724noreply@blogger.comtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-3349173050823601191.post-4470207927666619452012-01-06T21:56:00.000-08:002012-01-11T10:05:24.233-08:00Battle of Antietam: Details<b>Details</b><br /><br />Location: The terrain provided excellent cover for infantrymen, with <b>rail and stone fences, outcroppings of limestone, and little hollows and swales.</b> The <b>creek to their front</b> was only a minor barrier, ranging from <b>60 to 100 feet (18–30 m) in width</b>, and was fordable in places and <b>crossed by three stone bridges each a mile (1.5 km) apart</b>. It was also a precarious position because the Confederate rear was blocked by the Potomac River and only a single crossing point, Boteler's Ford at Shepherdstown, was nearby should retreat be necessary.<br /><br />Although an immediate Union attack on the morning of September 16 would have had an overwhelming advantage in numbers, McClellan's trademark caution and <b>his belief that Lee had as many as 100,000 men, caused him to delay his attack for a day, in reality Lee had only 18,000.</b> This gave the Confederates more time to prepare defensive positions.<br /><br />Lack of coordination and concentration of McClellan's (Union) forces almost <b>completely nullified the two-to-one advantage the Union enjoyed</b> and allowed Lee to shift his defensive forces to meet each offensive.<br /><br /><b>The Morning</b><br /><br />As the first <b>Union men emerged from the North Woods and into the Cornfield, an artillery duel erupted</b>. Confederate fire was from the horse artillery batteries.<br />Union had four batteries of 20-pounderParrott rifles.<br /><br />Heavy casualties on both sides and was described by Col. Lee as "artillery Hell.".<br /><br />Seeing the <b>glint of Confederate bayonets concealed in the Cornfield</b>, Hooker halted his infantry and brought up four batteries of artillery, which <b>fired shell and canister over the heads of the Federal infantry, covering the field. All at once, the cornfield exploded into chaos as a savage battle raged through the area. Men beat each other over the heads with rifle butts and stabbed each other with bayonets.</b> Officers rode around on their horses sweating and cursing and yelling orders no one could hear in the noise. Rifles became hot and fouled from too much firing. <b>The air was filled with a hail of bullets and shells. The Cornfield remained a bloody stalemate.</b><br /><br />The <b>Cornfield, an area about 250 yards (230 m) deep and 400 yards (400 m) wide, was a scene of indescribable destruction.</b> It was estimated that the Cornfield changed hands no fewer than 15 times in the course of the morning.<br /><br />When asked by a fellow officer where his division was, Hood (Confederate) replied, <b>"Dead on the field."</b><br /><br />The <b>morning phase ended with casualties on both sides of almost 13,000</b>, including two Union corps commanders.<br /><br /><b>Mid-Day</b><br /><br />Confederate men were in a <b>strong defensive position</b>, atop a gradual ridge, in a sunken road worn down by years of wagon traffic, which <b>formed a natural trench.</b><br /><br />A regimental chaplain, Father William Corby, <b>rode back and forth across the front of the formation shouting words of conditional absolution prescribed by the Roman Catholic Church for those who were about to die.</b><br /><br />Confederate Col. Gordon received <b>four serious wounds in the fight. He lay unconscious, face down in his cap, and later told colleagues that he should have smothered in his own blood, except for the act of an unidentified Yankee, who had earlier shot a hole in his cap, which allowed the blood to drain.</b><br /><br /><b>Afternoon</b><br /><br />The southernmost crossing of the Antietam. It would become known to history as Burnside's Bridge because of the <b>notoriety of the coming battle</b>. The road leading to it ran parallel to the creek and was <b>exposed to enemy fire</b>. The <b>bridge was dominated by a 100-foot (30 m) high wooded bluff on the west bank, strewn with boulders from an old quarry, making infantry and sharpshooter fire from good covered positions a dangerous impediment to crossing.</b><br /><br /><b>Aftermath</b><br /><br /><b>The battle was over by 5:30 p.m.</b> Losses for the day were heavy on both sides.<br /><br />On the morning of September 18, <b>Lee's army prepared to defend against a Federal assault that never came</b>. After an <b>improvised truce for both sides to recover and exchange their wounded</b>, Lee's forces began withdrawing across the Potomac that evening to return to Virginia.<br /><br /><b>President Lincoln was disappointed in McClellan's (Union) performance</b>. He believed that McClellan's cautious and poorly coordinated actions in the field had forced the battle to a draw rather than a crippling Confederate defeat.<br /><br /><span style="font-weight: bold;font-size:130%;" ><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other </span><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/11/battle-of-antietam.html">Battle of Antietam</a></span><span style="font-size:130%;"><span style="font-weight: bold;"> sections: </span></span><div class="post-body entry-content" id="post-body-2242868653052243807"><ul><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2012/01/battle-of-antietam-overiew.html"><b>Battle of Antietam: Overview</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2012/01/battle-of-antietam-summary.html"><b>Battle of Antietam: Summary</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2012/01/battle-of-antietam-characters.html"><b>Battle of Antietam: Characters</b></a></li></ul></div>John Dhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/08877708667095519724noreply@blogger.comtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-3349173050823601191.post-80436112227765503012012-01-05T21:57:00.000-08:002012-01-11T10:01:38.702-08:00Battle of Chancellorsville: Overview<u>BATTLE OF CHANCELLORSVILLE (may 1-4 1863 <b>CONFED</b>)</u><br />This battle is considered Lee’s “Perfect battle” because of his risky decision to split his army in the presence of a much larger enemy force. He would lose Stonewall Jackson during this but his strategy worked. This battle occurred in Spotsylvania County, Virginia and resulted in 24,000 casualties of which 14,000 were union soldiers.<br /><br /><b>When?</b><br /><br />April 30 – May 6, 1863<br /><br /><b>Where?</b><br /><br />Spotsylvania County, Virginia (Northeast Virginia – near village of Chancellorsville)<br /><br /><b>Who won the Battle of Chancellorsville?</b><br /><br />Confederates<br /><br /><b>What Happened?</b><br /><br />Lee (Confederate) was outnumbered but tactically split his army up in a manner that while not without risk allowed him to win this week long battle.<br /><br /><b>Why is this important?</b><br /><br />This battle is considered Lee’s “Perfect battle” because of his risky decision to split his army in the presence of a much larger enemy force. He would lose Stonewall Jackson during this but his <span style="font-weight: bold;">strategy worked</span>.<br /><br /><span style="font-weight: bold;font-size:130%;" ><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other </span><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/11/battle-of-chancellorsville.html">Battle of Chancellorsville</a></span><span style="font-size:130%;"><span style="font-weight: bold;"> sections:</span></span><br /><div class="post-body entry-content" id="post-body-2242868653052243807"><ul><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2012/01/battle-of-chancellorsville-summary.html"><b>Battle of Chancellorsville: Summary</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2012/01/battle-of-chancellorsville-characters.html"><b>Battle of Chancellorsville: Characters</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2012/01/battle-of-chancellorsville-details.html"><b>Battle of Chancellorsville: Details</b></a></li></ul></div>John Dhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/08877708667095519724noreply@blogger.comtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-3349173050823601191.post-42447066555003242782012-01-04T22:03:00.000-08:002012-01-11T10:01:49.618-08:00Battle of Chancellorsville: Summary<b>Summary</b><br /><ul><li>Hooker Union planned a double envelopment, attacking Lee from both his front and rear.</li><br /><li>On <b>May 1, 1863</b>, Hooker advanced from Chancellorsville toward Lee, but the Confederate general <b>split his army in the face of superior numbers</b>, leaving a small force at Fredericksburg to Union troops from advancing, while he attacked another Union advance with about 4/5ths of his army. Hooker withdrew his men to the defensive lines around Chancellorsville, ceding the initiative to Lee.</li><br /><li>On <b>May 2, 1863</b>, Lee divided his army again, sending Stonewall Jackson's entire corps on a flanking march. <b>Popular and successful Confederate leader Stonewall Jackson died in this battle.</b></li><br /><li>After the <b>second bloodiest day of the Civil War</b> on May 3, 1863. Union troops withdrew on May5-6. The campaign ended on May 7.</li></ul><p><span style="font-weight: bold;font-size:130%;" ><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other </span><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/11/battle-of-chancellorsville.html">Battle of Chancellorsville</a></span><span style="font-size:130%;"><span style="font-weight: bold;"> sections: </span></span></p><div class="post-body entry-content" id="post-body-2242868653052243807"><ul><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2012/01/battle-of-chancellorsville-overview.html"><b>Battle of Chancellorsville: Overview</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2012/01/battle-of-chancellorsville-characters.html"><b>Battle of Chancellorsville: Characters</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2012/01/battle-of-chancellorsville-details.html"><b>Battle of Chancellorsville: Details</b></a></li></ul></div>John Dhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/08877708667095519724noreply@blogger.comtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-3349173050823601191.post-7856579901056370822012-01-03T22:07:00.000-08:002012-01-11T10:02:03.321-08:00Battle of Chancellorsville: Details<b>Details</b><br /><br /><b>Strategy</b><br /><ul><li>In the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War, the <b>basic offensive plan for the Union had been to advance and seize the Confederate capital, Richmond, Virginia.</b></li><br /><li><b>Abraham Lincoln had become convinced that the appropriate objective for his Eastern army was the army of Robert E. Lee's, not any geographic features such as a capital city</b>, but he and his generals knew that <b>the most reliable way to bring Lee to a decisive battle was to threaten his capital.</b></li></ul><b>Terrain</b><br /><ul><li>One of the defining characteristics of the battlefield was a <b>dense woodland</b> south of the Rapidan known locally as the <b>"Wilderness of Spotsylvania"</b>. The area had once been an open broadleaf forest, but during colonial times the trees were gradually cut down to make charcoal for local pig iron furnaces. When the supply of wood was exhausted, the furnaces were abandoned and <b>secondary forest growth developed, creating a dense mass of brambles, thickets, vines, and low-lying vegetation.</b></li><br /><li>The Chancellorsville Campaign was <b>one of the most lopsided clashes of the war, with the Union's effective fighting force more than twice the Confederates' Hooker's (Union) army was much better supplied and was well-rested after several months of inactivity. Lee's forces, on the other hand, were poorly provisioned and were scattered all over the state of Virginia.</b></li><br /></ul><b>Union Plan 1:</b> Maj. Gen. George Stoneman (Union) planned to <b>cut Lee’s lines of communication and supply</b>. Stoneman <b>attempted to execute this turning movement on April 13, but heavy rains made the river crossing site at Sulphur Spring impassable.</b><br /><br /><b>Union Plan 2:</b> Hooker's (Union) second plan was <b>to launch both his cavalry and infantry simultaneously in a bold double envelopment</b> of Lee's army.<br /><br /><ul><li>The terrain was such that the <b>area was largely unsuitable for the deployment of artillery and the control of large infantry formations, which would nullify some of the Union advantage in military power.</b></li><br /></ul><b>April 27-30, 1863: Movement to Battle</b><br /><br />On April 27–28, 1863 the initial three corps of the <b>Union Army began their march.</b><br /><ul><li><b>Hooker (Union leader) arrived late on April 30 and made the Chancellor (name of the village) mansion his headquarters. The mansion was a single large, brick structure. Some of the Chancellor family remained in the house during the battle.</b> </li></ul>By <b>May 1, 1863 the Union had approximately 70,000 men concentrated</b> in and around Chancellorsville.<br /><ul><li>When Lee (Confederate) found out about the Union plans/approach <b>Lee did not react as Hooker had anticipated. Lee decided to violate one of the generally accepted Principles of War and divide his force in the face of a superior enemy</b>, hoping that aggressive action would allow him to attack and defeat a portion of Hooker's army before it could be fully concentrated against him.</li><br /><li>Lee sent 4/5 of his army to endage the Union forces before the fully fortified and <b>he left behind a brigade under Brig. Gen. William Barksdale on heavily fortified area and one division</b> under Maj. Gen. Jubal A. Early, on Prospect Hill <b>south of the town</b>. These <b>roughly 11,000 men and 56 guns would attempt to resist any advance by Sedgwick's 40,000.</b></li><br /><li>Fortunately for the Confederates <b>heavy fog masked some of their movements.</b></li></ul><b>Battle May 1, 1863</b><br /><ul><li>Confederate men began <b>marching west before dawn</b> on May 1.</li><br /><li>The <b>first shots of the Battle of Chancellorsville were fired at 11:20 a.m.</b> as the armies collided.</li><br /><li>Lee (Confederate) plans an <b>aggressive move by taking all of his men</b> on a flanking march on May 2.</li></ul><b>Battle May 2, 1863</b><br /><ul><li>Hooker (Union) sent his orders at <b>1:55 a.m.</b>, expecting that Reynolds would be able to <b>start marching before daylight, but problems with his telegraph communications delayed the order to Fredericksburg until just before sunrise</b>. Reynolds was forced to make a risky daylight march. Union troops were behind schedule the rest of the day.</li><br /><li>Meanwhile, <b>for the second time, Lee was dividing his army.</b></li><br /><li>Many of the <b>Union immigrants had poor English language skills and they were subjected to ethnic friction with the rest of the Army</b> of the Potomac, where all non-Irish immigrants were referred to as "Germans". In fact, <b>half the XI Corps consisted of native-born Americans, mostly from the Midwest, but it was the immigrants with whom the corps came to be associated. The corps' readiness was poor as well.</b> Little experience. And <b>although many of the immigrants had served in European armies, they tended to not perform well under the loose discipline of the American volunteer military</b>. Because of these factors, Hooker had placed the XI Corps on his flank and did not have any major plans for it except as a reserve or mopping-up force after the main fighting was over.</li><br /><li>Around <b>5:30 p.m. 21,500 Confederate men</b> exploded out of the woods screaming the Rebel Yell. <b>Most of the men in the immigrant Union corps were sitting down to dinner and had their rifles unloaded</b> and stacked. Their <b>first clue to the impending onslaught was the observation of numerous animals, such as rabbits and foxes, fleeing in their direction.</b></li><br /><li>After midnight Jackson (Confederate) <b>rode out onto the Plank Road that night to determine the feasibility of a night attack by the light of the full moon</b>, traveling beyond the farthest advance of his men. As Jackson (Confederate) and his staff started to return, they <b>were incorrectly identified as Union cavalry by men</b> and hit with friendly fire. <b>Jackson's three bullet wounds were not in themselves life-threatening, but his left arm was broken and had to be amputated.</b></li><br /><li>Jackson contracted pneumonia and died on May 10. His death was a devastating loss for the Confederacy.</li></ul><b>Battle May 3, 1863</b><br /><ul><li><b>Artillery fire was exchanged by both sides</b> in the afternoon and at 5:30 p.m.</li></ul><b>Battle May 4-6, 1863</b><br /><ul><li>Confederate attack finally began around 6 pm.</li><br /><li>Hooker felt he was out of options to save the campaign. He <b>called a council of war and asked his corps commanders to vote about whether to stay and fight or to withdraw. Although a majority voted to fight</b>, Hooker had had enough, and on the night of May 5–6, <b>he withdrew back across the river</b> at U.S. Ford.</li><br /><li><b>Rains caused the river to rise and threatened to break the pontoon bridges.</b></li><br /><li>The <b>surprise withdrawal frustrated Lee's plan for one final attack</b> against Chancellorsville.</li></ul><b>Aftermath</b><br /><ul><li>The <b>battlefield was a scene of widespread destruction, covered with dead men and animals.</b></li><br /><li>The <b>south lost its most aggressive field commander, Stonewall Jackson.</b></li><br /><li>Hooker (<b>Union</b>), who began the campaign believing he <b>had "80 chances in 100 to be successful", lost the battle through miscommunication, the incompetence of some of his leading generals</b> (most notably Howard and Stoneman, but also Sedgwick), <b>but mostly through the collapse of his confidence.</b></li></ul><b>Union Reaction</b><br /><ul><li>The Union was shocked by the defeat. <b>President Abraham Lincoln</b> was quoted as saying, <b>"My God! My God! What will the country say?"</b></li><br /><li><b>Hooker’s poor performance resulted in him being yanked from command (by Lincoln) three days before Gettysburg.</b></li><br /><li><b>Confederate Reaction</b></li><br /><li>The <b>Confederate public had mixed feelings about the result, joy at Lee's tactical victory tempered by the loss of their most beloved general, Stonewall Jackson.</b></li><br /><li>Of more consequence for <b>Gettysburg</b> (than losing Jackson), was the <b>attitude that Lee absorbed from his great victory at Chancellorsville, that his army was virtually invincible and would succeed at anything he asked them to do.</b></li></ul><p><span style="font-weight: bold;font-size:130%;" ><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other </span><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/11/battle-of-chancellorsville.html">Battle of Chancellorsville</a></span><span style="font-size:130%;"><span style="font-weight: bold;"> sections: </span></span></p><div class="post-body entry-content" id="post-body-2242868653052243807"><ul><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2012/01/battle-of-chancellorsville-overview.html"><b>Battle of Chancellorsville: Overview</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2012/01/battle-of-chancellorsville-summary.html"><b>Battle of Chancellorsville: Summary</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2012/01/battle-of-chancellorsville-characters.html"><b>Battle of Chancellorsville: Characters</b></a></li></ul></div>John Dhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/08877708667095519724noreply@blogger.comtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-3349173050823601191.post-87051381283708529032012-01-02T22:12:00.000-08:002012-01-11T10:02:13.922-08:00Battle of Chancellorsville: Characters<b><u>Union</u></b><br /><br /><b>1) Joseph Hooker (Union)</b><br /><ul><li>Commander and Leader</li><br /><li>During the <b>spring of 1863, Hooker (Union) established a reputation as an outstanding administrator and restored the morale of his soldiers</b>, which had plummeted to a new low under Burnside.</li><br /><li>Among his <b>changes were fixes to the daily diet of the troops, camp sanitary changes</b>, improvements and accountability of the quartermaster system, addition of and <b>monitoring of company cooks, several hospital reforms, an improved furlough system</b>, orders to stem rising desertion, improved drills, and stronger officer training.</li><br /><li>After leaving Georgia, Hooker commanded the Northern Department (comprising the states of Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois), headquartered in Cincinnati, Ohio, from <b>October 1, 1864, until the end of the war.[4] While in Cincinnati he married Olivia Groesbeck, sister of Congressman William S. Groesbeck.</b></li></ul><b>2) Maj. Gen. George Stoneman (Union)</b><br /><ul><li>On November 22, 1861 (a year and a half before this battle) Stoneman married Mary Oliver Hardisty of Baltimore. They eventually had four children.</li><br /><li>The plan for the <b>Battle of Chancellorsville was strategically daring. Hooker assigned Stoneman a key role in which his Cavalry Corps would raid deeply into Robert E. Lee's</b> rear areas and destroy vital railroad lines and supplies, distracting Lee from Hooker's main assaults. However, Stoneman was a disappointment in this strategic role. The Cavalry Corps got off to a good start in May 1863.</li><br /><li>During the entire battle, <b>Stoneman accomplished little and Hooker considered him one of the principal reasons for the Union defeat at Chancellorsville. Hooker needed to deflect criticism from himself and relieved Stoneman from his cavalry command, sending him back to Washington, D.C., for medical treatment (chronic hemorrhoids, exacerbated by cavalry service),</b> where in July he became a Chief of the U.S. Cavalry Bureau, a desk job.</li></ul><b>3) Misc. Immigrant Union Soldier</b><br /><ul><li>Many of the <b>Union immigrants had poor English language skills and they were subjected to ethnic friction with the rest of the Army</b> of the Potomac, where all non-Irish immigrants were referred to as "Germans". In fact, <b>half the XI Corps consisted of native-born Americans, mostly from the Midwest, but it was the immigrants with whom the corps came to be associated. The corps' readiness was poor as well. Little experience. And although many of the immigrants had served in European armies, they tended to not perform well under the loose discipline of the American volunteer military</b>. Because of these factors, Hooker had placed the XI Corps on his flank and did not have any major plans for it except as a reserve or mopping-up force after the main fighting was over.</li><br /><li>Around <b>5:30 p.m. 21,500 Confederate men</b> exploded out of the woods screaming the Rebel Yell. <b>Most of the men in the immigrant Union corps were sitting down to dinner and had their rifles unloaded and stacked. Their first clue to the impending onslaught was the observation of numerous animals, such as rabbits and foxes, fleeing in their direction.</b></li></ul><b><u>Confederate</u></b><br /><br /><b>4) Robert E. Lee (Confederate)</b><br /><ul><li>Commander and Leader</li><br /><li><b>All three of this sons served in the Confederate Army.</b></li><br /><li><b>Related to George Washington through marriage.</b></li><br /><li>Lee's troop strength – 57,000, casualties – 12,764</li><br /><li>Hooker's troop strength – 105,000, casualties – 16,792</li><br /><li>While he was stationed at Fort Monroe, <b>he married Mary Anna Randolph Custis (1808–1873), great-granddaughter of Martha Washington</b> by her first husband Daniel Parke Custis, and step-great-granddaughter of George Washington, the first president of the United States. They were <b>married on June 30, 1831.</b></li><br /><li>They eventually <b>had seven children, three boys and four girls. Son George Washington Custis Lee (Custis, "Boo"); 1832–1913; served as Major General in the Confederate Army</b> and aide-de-camp to President Jefferson Davis; unmarried. <b>William Henry Fitzhugh Lee ("Rooney"); 1837–1891; served as Major General in the Confederate Army (cavalry); married twice</b>; surviving children by second marriage. <b>Robert Edward Lee, Jr. (Rob); 1843–1914; served as Captain in the Confederate Army</b> (Rockbridge Artillery); married twice;</li></ul><b>5) Lt. Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson (Confederate)</b><br /><ul><li>Mortally wounded in this battle from friendly fire. <b>Jackson was hit by three bullets, two in the left arm and one in the right hand.</b></li><br /><li><b>Darkness ended the assault</b>. As Jackson and his staff were returning to camp on May 2, they were mistaken for a Union cavalry force by the 18th North Carolina Infantry regiment who shouted, <b>"Halt, who goes there?"</b>, but fired before evaluating the reply. Frantic shouts by Jackson's staff identifying the party were replied to by Major John D. Barry with the retort, <b>"It's a damned Yankee trick! Fire!"</b></li><br /><li><b>Jackson died of complications from pneumonia on May 10, 1863</b>. On his death bed, though he became weaker, he remained spiritually strong, saying towards the end "It is the Lord's Day; my wish is fulfilled. I have always desired to die on Sunday."</li><br /><li>Jackson and his entire corps were sent on an <b>aggressive flanking maneuver</b> to the right of the Union lines. This flanking movement would be <b>one of the most successful and dramatic of the war</b>. While riding with his infantry in a wide berth well south and west of the Federal line of battle, Jackson employed Maj. Gen. Fitzhugh Lee's <b>cavalry to provide for better reconnaissance in regards to the exact location of the Union right and rear</b>. The results were far better than even Jackson could have hoped. <b>Lee found the entire right side of the Federal lines in the middle of open field, guarded merely by two guns that faced westward, as well as the supplies and rear encampments. The men were eating and playing games in carefree fashion, completely unaware that an entire Confederate corps was less than a mile away. What happened next is given in Lee's own words.</b></li><br /><li><b>Jackson immediately returned to his corps and arranged his divisions into a line of battle to charge directly into the oblivious Federal right</b>. The Confederates marched silently until they were merely several hundred feet from the Union position, then released <b>a bloodthirsty cry and full charge</b>. Many of the Federals were captured without a shot fired, the rest were driven into a full rout. Jackson pursued relentlessly back toward the center of the Federal line until dusk.<br /></li></ul><span style="font-weight: bold;font-size:130%;" ><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other </span><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/11/battle-of-chancellorsville.html">Battle of Chancellorsville</a></span><span style="font-size:130%;"><span style="font-weight: bold;"> sections: </span></span><div class="post-body entry-content" id="post-body-2242868653052243807"><ul><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2012/01/battle-of-chancellorsville-overview.html"><b>Battle of Chancellorsville: Overview</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2012/01/battle-of-chancellorsville-summary.html"><b>Battle of Chancellorsville: Summary</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2012/01/battle-of-chancellorsville-details.html"><b>Battle of Chancellorsville: Details</b></a></li></ul></div>John Dhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/08877708667095519724noreply@blogger.comtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-3349173050823601191.post-23194741540745520322012-01-01T22:18:00.000-08:002012-01-11T09:57:38.097-08:00Battle Chickamauga: Details<b>Details</b><br /><br />Northern forces were led by <b>Maj. Gen. William Rosecrans (Union) (60,000 men)</b> and <b>Southern forces (65,000 men)</b> were led by Gen. Braxton Bragg (Confederate).<br /><br />North setup - After a successful Union campaign in middle Tennessee the North continued on the offensive, attempting to force the Confederates out of Chattanooga. In early September, Rosecrans consolidated his forces scattered in Tennessee and Georgia and forced Bragg's army out of Chattanooga, heading south. Bragg (Confederate leader) was determined to reoccupy Chattanooga and decided to meet a part of Rosecrans's army, defeat it, and then move back into the city. On September 18, mounted cavalry and infantry from both sides fought.<br /><br />South setup – Ge. Braxton Bragg (Confederate) consolidated troops and found himself with three subordinates who had little or no respect for him: Maj. Gen. Simon B. Buckner, Lt. Gen. Leonidas Polk and Maj. Gen. William J. Hardee.<br /><br /><b>Union Planning</b><br /><br />Rosecrans faced significant logistical challenges if he chose to move forward. The Cumberland Plateau that separated the armies was a rugged, barren country over 30 miles long with poor roads and little opportunity for foraging. If Bragg attacked him during the advance, Rosecrans would be forced to fight with his back against the mountains and tenuous supply lines. He did not have the luxury of staying put, however, because he was under intense pressure from Washington to move forward.<br /><br />Rosecrans knew that he would have difficulty receiving supplies from his base on any advance across the Tennessee River and therefore thought it necessary to accumulate enough supplies and transport wagons that he could cross long distances without a reliable line of communications.<br /><br />An opposed crossing of the wide river was not feasible, so Rosecrans devised a deception to distract Bragg above Chattanooga while the army crossed downstream. If executed correctly, this plan would cause Bragg to evacuate Chattanooga or be trapped in the city without supplies.<br /><br /><b>Union approaching</b><br /><br />Rosecrans ordered his army to move on August 16. The difficult road conditions meant a full week passed before they reached the Tennessee River Valley. They encamped while engineers made preparations for crossing the river.<br /><br />Meanwhile, Rosecrans's deception plan was underway. His men pounded on tubs and sawed boards, sending pieces of wood downstream, to make the Confederates think that rafts were being constructed for a crossing north of the city. The deception worked and Bragg (Confederate) was convinced that the Union crossing would be above the city.<br /><br />Bridges were constructed and ferries were utilized for crossing the river.<br /><br /><b>September 18: Opening Engagements</b><br /><br />Union troops failed in their attempt to destroy a bridge before Confederates crossed it. With superior fire power (Spencer repeating rifles) Union troops held off approaching Confederates and forced them to take a longer, alternative route that put them behind schedule.<br /><br /><b>Battle Day 1: September 19</b><br /><br />The Battle of Chickamauga opened almost by <b>accident</b>, when Union troops moved toward Jay's Mill In search of water.<br /><br />Some Confederate Troops arrived the morning of the fight having finished an <b>all-night march</b> from Crawfish Springs, GA.<br /><br />Union men drove back Confederate advanced <b>cavalrymen</b> and Forrest formed a defensive line of dismounted troopers to stem the tide.<br /><br />Confederates pushed strongly forward, approached <b>so close</b> to Rosecrans's new headquarters (a tiny cabin) that <b>the staff officers inside had to shout to make themselves heard over the sounds of battle.</b><br /><br />By 6 pm <b>darkness was falling</b>. Some Union men advanced to support another Union brigade, but mistakenly fired at them and were subjected to return <b>friendly fire</b>. A <b>Union leader (Col. Baldwin) shot dead from his horse</b> attempting to lead a counterattack.<br /><br />Confederates strongly assaulted but could not break the Union line.<br /><br />Although the Confederates launched costly and determined assaults, Thomas and his men held until twilight. Union forces then retired to Chattanooga while the Confederates occupied the surrounding heights, besieging the city.<br /><br /><b>Planning for the Second Day</b><br /><br /><b>Confederate</b> - Bragg (Confederate leader) met individually with his subordinates and informed them that he was reorganizing troops into two wings. One wing (led Let. Gen. Polk) was instructed to initiate the assault on the Federal left at daybreak. The courier send with written orders was not able to find Polk’s new subordinate (3rd Let. D.H. Hill) and ended up not telling anyone. At 5 a.m. on September 20, Polk was awakened on the cold and foggy battlefield to find that the attack was not being prepared.<br /><br /><b>Union</b> - The Confederate army had been receiving reinforcements and now outnumbered the Federals. Rosecrans decided that his army had to remain in place, on the defensive.<br /><br />Rosecrans (Union leader) ordered a northern leader to expedite his relief some brigades to move north. Some staff officers later recalled that Rosecrans had been <b>extremely angry and berated the officer in front of his staff.</b><br /><br /><b>Battle Day 2: September 20</b><br /><br />The Confederates resumed their assault. Bragg resumed his assault. In late morning, Rosecrans (Union) was misinformed that he had a gap in his line. In moving units to shore up the supposed gap, Rosecrans accidentally created an actual gap, directly in the path of an eight-brigade assault on a narrow front.<br /><br />At Horseshoe Ridge Union fighters staved off Confederates in <b>"one of the epic defensive stands of the entire war." The 535 men of the regiment expended 43,550 rounds</b> in the engagement.<br /><br />Lt. Gen. James Longstreet (Confederate) led the eight-brigade assault through the gap Rosecrans (Union) caused. One third of the Union army (including Rosecrans) was driven from the field. Gen. George H. Thomas (Union), assumed command of the remaining Union soldiers when Rosecrans vacated.<br /><br />Thomas (Union) began withdrawing troops when he was given command. As the Confederates saw the Union soldiers withdrawing, they renewed their attacks. Thomas left Horseshoe Ridge, placing Granger in charge, but Granger departed soon thereafter, <b>leaving no one to coordinate the withdrawal</b>. Three Union regiments were <b>left behind without sufficient ammunition, and ordered to use their bayonets</b>. They held their position until <b>surrounded</b>, when they were <b>forced to surrender.</b><br /><br /><b>Aftermath</b><br /><br />Thomas (Union) wanted to continue to fight. Although he admitted that the <b>troops were tired and hungry, and nearly out of ammunition</b>, he added "I believe we can whip them tomorrow. I believe we can now crown the whole battle with victory." He urged Rosecrans to rejoin the army and lead it, but <b>Rosecrans, physically exhausted and psychologically a beaten man, remained in Chattanooga.</b><br /><br />Privately, Lincoln told a member of his office that <b>Rosecrans seemed "confused and stunned like a duck hit on the head."</b><br /><br />Although the <b>Confederates were technically the victors</b>, driving Rosecrans (Union) from the field, Bragg (Confederate) had not achieved his objective of destroying Rosecrans, nor of restoring Confederate control of East Tennessee.<br /><br /><span style="font-weight: bold;font-size:130%;" ><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other </span><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/11/battle-chickamauga.html">Battle of Chickamauga</a></span><span style="font-size:130%;"><span style="font-weight: bold;"> sections: </span></span><div class="post-body entry-content" id="post-body-2242868653052243807"><ul><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-chickamauga-overview.html"><b>Battle of Chickamauga: Overview</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-chickamauga-summary.html"><b>Battle of Chickamauga: Summary</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-chickamauga-characters.html"><b>Battle of Chickamauga: Characters</b></a></li></ul></div>John Dhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/08877708667095519724noreply@blogger.comtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-3349173050823601191.post-32309959852098335972011-12-31T22:20:00.000-08:002012-01-11T09:57:09.874-08:00Battle of Chickamauga: Characters<b>Characters</b><br /><br /><b><u>Union</u></b><br /><br /><b>1) Maj. Gen. William Rosecrans (Union)</b><br /><ul><li>brusque, outspoken manner and willingness to quarrel openly with superiors</li><br /><li>Career: was an inventor, coal-oil company executive, diplomat, politician, and United States Army officer.</li><br /><li>Family life - At his graduation, he met Anna Elizabeth (or Eliza) Hegeman (1823–1883) of New York City and immediately fell in love. They were married on August 24, 1843. Their marriage lasted until her death on December 25, 1883. They had eight children.</li><br /><li>His military career was effectively ended following his disastrous defeat at the Battle of Chickamauga in 1863.</li><br /><li>Rosecrans was a graduate of West Point who served as a professor at the Academy and in engineering assignments before leaving the Army to pursue a career in civil engineering.</li></ul><b>2) Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas (Union)</b><br /><ul><li>Nicknames for Thomas included: “Rock of Chickamauga” (earned from his stout defense that saved the Union army from being completely routed), “Sledge of Nashville” and “Slow Trot Thomas”</li><br /><li>Served in the Mexican-American War.</li><br /><li>Despite his heritage as a Virginian. He won one of the first Union victories in the war. Thomas struggled with the decision but opted to remain with the United States. His Northern-born wife and his dislike of slavery probably helped influence his decision. In response, his family turned his picture against the wall, destroyed his letters, and never spoke to him again.</li><br /><li>He developed a reputation as a slow, deliberate general who shunned self-promotion and who turned down advancements in position when he did not think they were justified.</li><br /><li>Growing up his family had 24 slaves. Father died in a farm accident when George was 13.</li><br /><li>A traditional story is that Thomas taught his family's slaves to read, violating a Virginia law that prohibited this, although not all historians agree that this was true.</li><br /></ul><b><u>Confederate</u></b><br /><br /><b>3) Gen. Braxton Bragg (Confederate)</b><br /><ul><li>a native of North Carolina, was educated at West Point and became an artillery officer.</li><br /><li>He established a reputation as a strict disciplinarian, but also as a junior officer willing to publicly argue with and criticize his superior officers, including those at the highest levels of the Army.</li><br /><li>Bragg fought almost as bitterly against some of his uncooperative subordinates as he did against the enemy, and they made multiple attempts to have him replaced as army commander.</li><br /><li>Marriage/Civilian Life: Married Eliza Brooks, a wealthy sugar heiress in 1849.</li></ul><b>4) Lt. Gen. James Longstreet (Confederate)</b><br /><ul><li>Lt. Gen. James Longstreet (Confederate) led the eight-brigade assault through the gap Rosecrans (Union) caused.<br /></li></ul><ul><li>Principal subordinate to General Robert E. Lee, who called him his "Old War Horse."</li><br /><li>James was a poor student academically and a disciplinary problem at West Point, ranking 54th out of 56 cadets when he graduated in 1842. He was popular with his classmates.</li><br /><li>Married Maria Louisa Garland in 1848. Although their marriage would last for over 40 years and produce 10 children, Longstreet never mentioned Louise in his memoirs and most anecdotes about their relationship came to historians through the writings of his second wife, Helen Dortoh Longstreet, whom he married in Atlanta when she was age 34.</li><br /></ul><b>5) Maj. Gen. Simon B. Buckner (Confederate)</b><br /><ul><li>Became a subordinate of Braxton Bragg when Buckner’s Department of East Tennessee merged with Braxton’s troop. Buckner's attitude was colored by Bragg's unsuccessful invasion of Buckner's native Kentucky in 1862, as well as by the loss of his command through the merger.</li><br /><li>After graduating from the United States Military Academy at West Point, Buckner became an instructor there.</li><br /><li>He resigned from the army in 1855 to manage his father-in-law'sreal estate in Chicago</li><br /><li>Buckner married Mary Jane Kingsbury on May 2, 1850, at her aunt's home in Old Lyme, Connecticut.</li></ul><b>6) Confederate Soldier from Crawford Springs (Confederate)</b><br /><ul><li>Some Confederate Troops arrived the morning of the fight having finished an all-night march from Crawfish Springs, GA.</li><br /><li>Maj. Gen. John Bell Hood (Confederate)</li><br /><li>On Day 2 of the battle as he reached his former unit, a bullet struck him in his right thigh, knocking him from his horse. He was taken to a hospital near Alexander's Bridge, where his leg was amputated a few inches from the hip.</li><br /><li>Hood had a reputation for bravery and aggressiveness that sometimes bordered on recklessness.</li></ul><p><span style="font-weight: bold;font-size:130%;" ><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other </span><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/11/battle-chickamauga.html">Battle of Chickamauga</a></span><span style="font-size:130%;"><span style="font-weight: bold;"> sections: </span></span></p><div class="post-body entry-content" id="post-body-2242868653052243807"><ul><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-chickamauga-overview.html"><b>Battle of Chickamauga: Overview</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-chickamauga-summary.html"><b>Battle of Chickamauga: Summary</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2012/01/battle-chickamauga-details.html"><b>Battle of Chickamauga: Details</b></a></li></ul></div>John Dhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/08877708667095519724noreply@blogger.comtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-3349173050823601191.post-6335556942224726342011-12-30T22:25:00.000-08:002012-01-11T09:58:27.241-08:00Battle Chickamauga: SummaryChickamauga is near Chattanooga, Tennessee. Chattanooga was an important area to control because a rail to Nashville and Atlanta and a manufacturing center.<br /><br />The South controlled the Chattanooga area and the North wanted it.<br /><br />The Union tried to blow up a bridge Confederate troops were crossing but failed in their attempt.<br /><br /><b>Day 1 of 2 of Battle</b><br /><ul><li>The Battle of Chickamauga opened almost by accident, when Union troops encroached while looking for water.</li><br /><li>Fighting was so close to Union headquarters that the Union top brass had to yell in their headquarters (a tiny cabin) to be heard over the neighboring fighting.</li></ul><b>Planning for Day 2 of 2</b><br /><ul><li><b>Confederates</b> - planned a dawn attack that didn’t materialize</li><br /><li><b>Union</b> - Confederate reinforcements arrived. The Union now outnumbered decided to go on the defensive.</li></ul><b>Day 2 of 2 of Battle</b><br /><ul><li><b>Tactical error</b> – Union commander Rosecrans was misinformed that he had a gap in his line. In attempting to correct the nonexistent gap he accidentally created an actual gap.</li><br /><li>At Horseshoe Ridge Union fighters staved off Confederates in “one of the epic defensive stands of the entire war.”</li><br /><li>Union commander Rosecrans was driven from the field. When Union backup Gen. George Thomas took control he began withdrawing troops. Thomas left himself, leaving no one else in control. Union troops were left behind without sufficient ammunition, and ordered to use their bayonets. They held their position until surrounded, when they were forced to surrender.</li></ul><p><span style="font-weight: bold;font-size:130%;" ><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other </span><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/11/battle-chickamauga.html">Battle of Chickamauga</a></span><span style="font-size:130%;"><span style="font-weight: bold;"> sections: </span></span></p><div class="post-body entry-content" id="post-body-2242868653052243807"><ul><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-chickamauga-overview.html"><b>Battle of Chickamauga: Overview</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-chickamauga-characters.html"><b>Battle of Chickamauga: Characters</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2012/01/battle-chickamauga-details.html"><b>Battle of Chickamauga: Details</b></a></li></ul></div>John Dhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/08877708667095519724noreply@blogger.comtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-3349173050823601191.post-83635494875254041482011-12-29T22:29:00.000-08:002012-01-11T09:57:59.661-08:00Battle Chickamauga: Overview<u>BATTLE OF CHICKAMAUGA (September 19-20 1863 <b>CONFED</b>)</u><br />This was the most significant Union defeat in the Civil War. The union had been unstoppable up to this point. Tactical mistakes by the Union led to their downfall in what is considered the war with the second highest number of casualties. This battle occurred in Catoosa County and Walker County, Georgia and resulted in 34,624 casualties of which 16,170 were Union soldiers.<br /><br /><b>When?</b><br /><br />September 19-20, 1863<br /><br /><b>Where?</b><br /><br />Extreme Northwest Georgia, just south of Chattanooga.<br /><br /><b>Who won the Battle of Chickamauga?</b><br /><br />The Confederacy won the Battle of Chickamauga.<br /><br /><b>Why is this important?</b><br /><br />Most significant Union defeat in the Civil War.<br /><br /><b>Why is Chattanooga important?</b><br /><br />Chattanooga was a vital rail hub (with lines going north toward Nashville and Knoxville and south toward Atlanta), and an important manufacturing center for the production of iron and coke, located on the navigable Tennessee River. Situated between Lookout Mountain, Missionary Ridge, Raccoon Mountain, and Stringer's Ridge, Chattanooga occupied an important, defensible position.<br /><br /><b>What happened?</b><br /><br />Weeks of preparation led to a couple of days of fighting to secure the tactical ground around Chattanooga, Tennessee.<br />Tactical mistakes resulted in a Confederate victory and the end of the Union’s offensive push into southeastern Tennessee and Northwestern Georgia.<br /><br /><b>What does Chickamauga mean?</b><br /><br />There are several possible Cherokee translations but the most popular is “River of Death.”<br /><br /><span style="font-weight: bold;font-size:130%;" ><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other </span><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/11/battle-chickamauga.html">Battle of Chickamauga</a></span><span style="font-size:130%;"><span style="font-weight: bold;"> sections:</span></span><br /><div class="post-body entry-content" id="post-body-2242868653052243807"><ul><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-chickamauga-summary.html"><b>Battle of Chickamauga: Summary</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-chickamauga-characters.html"><b>Battle of Chickamauga: Characters</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2012/01/battle-chickamauga-details.html"><b>Battle of Chickamauga: Details</b></a></li></ul></div>John Dhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/08877708667095519724noreply@blogger.comtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-3349173050823601191.post-19795157563514377402011-12-28T22:33:00.000-08:002012-01-11T09:54:41.170-08:00Battle of Fort Donelson: Details<b>Details</b><br /><br /><b>Union numbers </b><br /><br />Supporting the infantry divisions were <b>two regiments of cavalry and eight batteries of artillery</b>, altogether almost 25,000 men, although at the start of the battle, <b>only 15,000 were available.</b><br /><br />The Western Flotilla under <b>U.S. Navy</b> (Union) Flag consisted of <b>four ironclad gunboats and three wooden (“timberclad”) gunboats.</b><br /><br /><b>Confederate numbers </b><br /><br />Floyd’s Confederate force of <b>approximately 17,000 men</b> consisted of three divisions, garrison troops, and attached <b>cavalry.</b><br /><br /><b>The Layout</b><br /><br />Fort Donelson, a <b>Confederate fort, rose about 100 feet on dry ground above the Cumberland River, which allowed for plunging fire against attacking gunboats.</b> There were <b>three miles (5 km) of trenches in a semicircle around the fort and the small town of Dover.</b><br /><br /><b>Battle</b><br /><br /><b>Preliminary movements and attacks (Feb. 12-13).</b><br /><br />On February 12, most of the Union troops departed Fort Henry (a Confederate fort they’d captured days earlier) and <b>proceeded about 5 miles</b> on the two main roads leading <b>between the forts.</b><br /><br />SS Carondelet was <b>the first gunboat to arrive up the river, and she fired numerous shells into the fort, testing its defenses, before retiring. Grant arrived on February 12 and established his headquarters near the left side of the front of the line, at the Widow Crisp's house.</b><br /><br />On <b>February 13, several smaller probing attacks were carried out against the Confederate defenses, essentially ignoring orders from Grant that no general engagement be provoked.</b><br /><br />Some <b>wounded men caught between the lines were burned to death by grass fires ignited by artillery.</b><br /><br /><b>Freezing temperatures - a snow storm arrived the night of February 13, with strong winds that brought temperatures down to 10–12°F (-12°C) and deposited 3 inches (8 cm) of snow by morning. Guns and wagons were frozen to the earth. Because of the proximity of the enemy lines and the active sharpshooters, the soldiers could not light campfires for warmth or cooking, and both sides were miserable that night, many having arrived without blankets or overcoats.</b><br /><br /><b>Reinforcements and naval battle (February 14)</b><br /><br /><b> Six gunboats and another 10,000 Union reinforcements on twelve transport ships arrived.</b><br /><br /><b>Confederate gunners waited until the gunboats were within 400 yards, and then pummeled the fleet with artillery. The damage to the Union fleet was terrific.</b><br /><br />While the <b>Union boats had been damaged, they still controlled the Cumberland River. Grant realized that any success at Donelson would have to be carried by the army without strong naval support, and he wired Halleck that he might have to resort to a siege.</b><br /><br /><b>Breakout attempt February 15</b><br /><br /><b>Despite their unexpected naval success, the Confederate generals were still gloomy about their chances in the fort</b> and held another <b>late-night council of war, deciding to retry their aborted escape plan.</b> On the <b>morning of February 15, the Confederates launched a dawn assault</b> on the still unprotected right flank of the Union line. <b>The Union troops were not caught entirely by surprise because they had been unable to sleep in the cold weather.</b><br /><br />It was in this attack that Union troops in the West first heard the famous, unnerving rebel yell.<br /><br />Col. Morgan Lewis Smith (Union) was on horseback immediately behind his lead regiment and <b>a bullet shot off the cigar close to his mouth, but he coolly replaced it with a fresh one.</b><br /><br /><b>Surrender February 16<b><br /><br />Some <b>wounded froze to death in the snowstorm.</b><br /><br /><b>Union reinforcements were arriving. </b><br /><br /><b>Floyd (Confederate) came to realize that he was about to be captured and face justice in the North. He turned over his command to General Pillow, who also feared Northern reprisals and gave it in turn to General Buckner, who agreed to remain behind and surrender the army. Pillow escaped by small boat across the Cumberland in the night, Floyd the next morning on a steamer with two regiments of Virginia infantry.</b><br /><br />On the morning of <b>February 16</b>, Buckner (Confederate) </b>sent a note to Grant requesting an armistice and terms of surrender.</b><br /><br /><b>Buckner had expectations that Grant would offer generous terms because of their previous relationship. In 1854, Grant had lost a command in California allegedly because of a drinking problem, and U.S. Army officer Buckner had loaned him money to get home after his resignation. But Grant showed he had no mercy</b> towards men who had rebelled against the Union. His <b>reply was one of the most famous quotes to come out of the war</b>, giving him his nickname of "Unconditional Surrender":<br /><br />Sir: Yours of this date proposing Armistice, and appointment of Commissioners, to settle terms of Capitulation is just received. No terms except unconditional and immediate surrender can be accepted.<br /><br />I propose to move immediately upon your works.<br /><br />I am Sir: very respectfully<br /><br />Your obt. sevt.<br /><br />U.S. Grant<br /><br />Brig. Gen<br /><br /><b>Aftermath</b><br /><br /><b>Union</b> - Cannons were fired and church bells rung throughout the North at the news. TheChicago Tribune wrote that "Chicago reeled mad with joy."<br /><br /><b>Grant had captured more soldiers than all previous American generals combined.</b><br /><br /><b>Most of Tennessee fell under Union control, as did all of Kentucky, although both were subject to periodic Confederate raiding.<br /><br /></b><span style="font-weight: bold;font-size:130%;" ><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other </span><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/11/battle-fort-donelson.html">Battle of Fort Donelson</a></span><span style="font-size:130%;"><span style="font-weight: bold;"> sections: </span></span><div class="post-body entry-content" id="post-body-2242868653052243807"><ul><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-of-fort-donelson-overview.html"><b>Battle of Fort Donelson: Overview</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-of-fort-donelson-summary.html"><b>Battle of Fort Donelson: Summary</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-of-fort-donelson-characters.html"><b>Battle of Fort Donelson: Characters</b></a></li></ul></div>John Dhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/08877708667095519724noreply@blogger.comtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-3349173050823601191.post-78867328001431071272011-12-27T22:33:00.000-08:002012-01-11T09:54:51.061-08:00Battle of Fort Donelson: Characters<b>Characters</b><br /><br /><b><u>Union</u></b><br /><br /><b>1) Ulysses S. Grant (Union)</b><br /><ul><li><b>18th President of the United States</b></li><br /><li>successfully captured Fort Henry on February 6, 1862 and Fort Donelson on February 16</li><br /><li>at Fort Donelson the Union Army and Navy experienced stiff resistance from the Confederate forces.</li><br /><li><b>Grant’s first attack on Fort Donelson was countered</b> by Pillow's forces, pushing the Union Army into disorganized retreat eastward on the Nashville road. However, Grant was able to rally the troops; he resumed the offensive and the Confederates forces surrendered. Grant’s surrender terms were popular throughout the nation: <b>“No terms except unconditional and immediate surrender.”</b> With these victories, President Abraham Lincoln promoted Grant to major general of volunteers.</li></ul><b><br /><br />2) Misc. Union or Confederate soldiers dealing with the snow storm.<br /><br /></b><ul><li><b>Freezing temperatures</b> - a <b>snow storm arrived</b> the night of <b>February 13</b>, with <b>strong winds that brought temperatures down to 10–12°F (-12°C) and deposited 3 inches (8 cm) of snow by morning. Guns and wagons were frozen to the earth. Because of the proximity of the enemy lines and the active sharpshooters, the soldiers could not light campfires for warmth or cooking, and both sides were miserable that night, many having arrived without blankets or overcoats.</b></li></ul><u><b>Confederates</b></u><br /><br /><b>3) Brig. Gen. John B. Floyd (Confederate)</b><br /><ul><li><b>Lost the crucial battle of Fort Donelson</b></li><br /><li>Johnston <b>sent Floyd to reinforce Fort Donelson and assume command of the post there. Floyd assumed command of Fort Donelson on February 13 just two days after the Union army had arrived</b> at that spot, also becoming the third post commander within a week.</li><br /><li>Floyd was <b>not an appropriate choice to defend such a vital point, having political influence, but virtually no military experience</b>. General Johnston had other experienced, more senior, generals (P.G.T. Beauregard and William J. Hardee) available and made a serious error in selecting Floyd. Floyd had little military influence on the Battle of Fort Donelson itself, deferring to his more experienced subordinates.</li><br /><li>headquarters for this battle in the Dover Hotel.</li></ul><p><span style="font-weight: bold;font-size:130%;" ><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other </span><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/11/battle-fort-donelson.html">Battle of Fort Donelson</a></span><span style="font-size:130%;"><span style="font-weight: bold;"> sections: </span></span></p><div class="post-body entry-content" id="post-body-2242868653052243807"><ul><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-of-fort-donelson-overview.html"><b>Battle of Fort Donelson: Overview</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-of-fort-donelson-summary.html"><b>Battle of Fort Donelson: Summary</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-of-fort-donelson-details.html"><b>Battle of Fort Donelson: Details</b></a></li></ul></div>John Dhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/08877708667095519724noreply@blogger.comtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-3349173050823601191.post-11594982700767398822011-12-26T22:33:00.000-08:002012-01-11T09:55:01.811-08:00Battle of Fort Donelson: Summary<b>Summary</b><br /><br />The capture of the fort by Union forces opened the Cumberland River as an avenue for the invasion of the South. Fort Donelson protected the crucial Cumberland River and, indirectly, the manufacturing city of Nashville and Confederate control of Middle Tennessee.<br /><br />The success elevated Brig. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant from an obscure and largely unproven leader to the rank of major general.<br /><br />Union executed several small probing attacks on <b>February 12 and 13, 1862</b>.<br /><br />On <b>February 14, 1862 U.S. Navy (Union) gunboats</b> attempted to reduce the fort with naval gunfire, but were forced to withdraw after sustaining heavy damage from Donelson's <b><b>water batteries.</b><br /><br /></b>On <span style="font-weight: bold;">February 15, 1862 with their fort surrounded</span>, the Confederates, commanded by Brig. Gen. John B. Floyd,<span style="font-weight: bold;"> launched a surprise attack against Grant's army, attempting to open an avenue of escape</span>. Grant, who was away from the battlefield at the start of the attack, arrived to <span style="font-weight: bold;">rally his men and counterattack</span>. Despite achieving a partial success, Floyd lost his nerve and recalled his men to their entrenchments.<br /><br />On the morning<b> <b>of February 16, 1862</b> </b>the<b> <b>Confederates agreed to unconditional surrender </b></b>terms from Grant.<b><b><br /><br /></b></b><span style="font-weight: bold;font-size:130%;" ><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other </span><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/11/battle-fort-donelson.html">Battle of Fort Donelson</a></span><span style="font-size:130%;"><span style="font-weight: bold;"> sections: </span></span><div class="post-body entry-content" id="post-body-2242868653052243807"><ul><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-of-fort-donelson-overview.html"><b>Battle of Fort Donelson: Overview</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-of-fort-donelson-characters.html"><b>Battle of Fort Donelson: Characters</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-of-fort-donelson-details.html"><b>Battle of Fort Donelson: Details</b></a></li></ul></div>John Dhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/08877708667095519724noreply@blogger.comtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-3349173050823601191.post-38386580984911342302011-12-25T22:33:00.000-08:002012-01-11T09:55:12.113-08:00Battle of Fort Donelson: Overview<u>BATTLE OF FORT DONELSON (feb 11-16 1862 <b>UNION</b>)</u><br /><br /><em>This battle elevated Gen. Ulysses S. Grant from an unproven leader to a Major General ranking and earning the nickname “Unconditional Surrender”. This battle occurred in Stewart County, Tennessee and resulted in 17,398 casualties of which 15,067 were confederate soldiers.</em><br /><br /><b>When?</b><br /><br />Feb. 11 – 16, 1862<br /><br /><b>Where?</b><br /><br />Stewart County, Tennessee (Central NW Tennessee on Kentucky border)<br /><br /><b>Who won the Battle of Fort Donelson?</b><br /><br />The Union won the Battle of Fort Donelson.<br /><br /><b>What Happened?</b><br /><br />Decisive Union victory in which 87% of the casualties were Confederate<br /><br /><b>Why is this important?</b><br /><br />This battle elevated <b>Gen. Ulysses S. Grant from an unproven leader to a Major General ranking and earning the nickname <u>“Unconditional Surrender”</u>.</b><br /><br /><span style="font-weight: bold;font-size:130%;" ><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other </span><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/11/battle-fort-donelson.html">Battle of Fort Donelson</a></span><span style="font-size:130%;"><span style="font-weight: bold;"> sections:</span></span><br /><div class="post-body entry-content" id="post-body-2242868653052243807"><ul><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-of-fort-donelson-summary.html"><b>Battle of Fort Donelson: Summary</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-of-fort-donelson-characters.html"><b>Battle of Fort Donelson: Characters</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-of-fort-donelson-details.html"><b>Battle of Fort Donelson: Details</b></a></li></ul></div>John Dhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/08877708667095519724noreply@blogger.comtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-3349173050823601191.post-33030219014006410552011-12-24T22:48:00.001-08:002012-03-21T10:41:23.890-07:00Battle of Gettysburg: Overview<u>BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG (July 1-3 1863 <b>UNION</b>)</u><br /><br /><em>The bloodiest and most historic battle of the Civil War. This battle occurred in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania and resulted in 51,000 casualties of which 28,000 were confederate soldiers.</em><br /><br /><b>Who won the Battle of Gettysburg?</b><br /><br />The Union won the Battle of Gettysburg.<br /><br /><b>When?</b><br /><br />July 1 - 3, 1863<br /><br /><b>Where?</b><br /><br />South Central Pennsylvania (town of Gettysburg)<br /><br /><b>Why is this important?</b><br /><br />In retrospect the turning point in the War and the bloodiest battle.<br /><br /><b>What happened?</b><br /><br />Over three bloody days the Union tactically staved off a Confederate attack on Union soil in south central Pennsylvania.<br /><br /><span style="font-weight: bold;font-size:130%;" ><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other </span><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/11/battle-of-gettysburg.html">Battle of Gettysburg</a></span><span style="font-size:130%;"><span style="font-weight: bold;"> sections:</span></span><br /><div class="post-body entry-content" id="post-body-2242868653052243807"><ul><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-of-gettysburg-summary.html"><b>Battle of Gettysburg: Summary</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-of-gettysburg-characters.html"><b>Battle of Gettysburg: Characters</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-of-gettysburg-details.html"><b>Battle of Gettysburg: Details</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-of-gettysburg-trivia.html"><b>Battle of Gettysburg: Trivia</b></a></li></ul></div>John Dhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/08877708667095519724noreply@blogger.comtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-3349173050823601191.post-22966058185973589522011-12-23T22:48:00.000-08:002012-01-11T09:50:47.649-08:00Battle of Gettysburg: Summary<div class="field field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden"><div class="field-items"><div class="field-item even"><p><b>Setup</b> - Robert E. Lee marched his army into the North.</p> <p><b>Battle Day 1 of 3</b> – A fraction of the total soldiers had arrived. Union defenders eventually retreat through the streets of town to the hills just to the south. <u>Confederates win day 1.</u></p> <p><b>Battle Day 2 of 3</b> – Fierce fighting raged in four separate areas:</p> <ul><li><b>Little Round Top </b></li><ul><li>The smaller of two rocky hills </li><li>Exhausted confederates are unable to take the hill and are defeated by a Union bayonet charge.</li></ul></ul><ul><li><b>The Wheatfield</b></li><ul><li>Nicknamed “Bloody Wheatfield.” Bordering river, Plum Run, “ran red with blood.” </li><li>Union brigades outnumbered Confederates by 2:1. Northerners successfully delayed the Confederate assault with “vicious hand-to-hand combat.”</li></ul></ul><ul><li><b>Devil’s Den</b></li><ul><li>A modest elevation made distinctive by piles of huge boulders.</li><li>Tremendous loss of life in the first 30 minutes (including commanders on horseback). Union retreated and Confederate men spent the next 22 hours firing across the “Valley of Death” on Union troops.</li></ul></ul><ul><li><b>Peach Orchard</b></li><ul><li>Orchard Northwest of the other battlegrounds</li><li>Union General Sickles insubordinately moved his men to where they were “virtually destroyed” and Confederate General Barksdale “led the charge on horseback, long hair flowing in the wind, sword waving in the air.” Confederates win this one.</li></ul></ul><p><b>Battle Day 3 of 3</b> – The Union forces a Confederate retreat from Gettysburg.</p> <ul><li>Before Confederates were ready, Union troops started a dawn artillery bombardment against the Confederates on Culp’s Hill. Seven hours of bitter combat followed.</li><li>Three miles east of Gettysburg a significant cavalry engagement occurred in which lengthy mounted battle included hand-to-hand saber combat.</li><li>Confederate leader Robert E. Lee ordered “Pickett’s Charge”, arguably an avoidable mistake from which the South never recovered. After enticing the South to waste ammunition the Union opened fire during the approach of the Confederate infantry. The result was devastating to the South.</li></ul><p><b>Post Battle</b></p> <ul><li>On July 4, 1863, on the day of the Southern Gettysburg surrender, armies stared at one another in a heavy rain across the bloody fields. Late that evening Lee started his army in motion.</li><li>Nearly 8,000 had been killed outright; these bodies lying in the hot summer sun. Over 3,000 horse carcasses were burned in a series of piles south of town.</li><li>The news of the Union victory electrified the North in newspaper headlines including the Philadelphia Inquirer.</li><li>The Confederates had lost politically as well as militarily.</li><li>That November, President Lincoln used the dedication ceremony for the Gettysburg National Cemetery to honor the fallen Union soldiers and redefine the purpose of the war in his historic <b>Gettysburg Address</b>.</li></ul><p><span style="font-weight: bold;font-size:130%;" ><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other </span><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/11/battle-of-gettysburg.html">Battle of Gettysburg</a></span><span style="font-size:130%;"><span style="font-weight: bold;"> sections: </span></span></p><div class="post-body entry-content" id="post-body-2242868653052243807"><ul><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-of-gettysburg-overview.html"><b>Battle of Gettysburg: Overview</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-of-gettysburg-characters.html"><b>Battle of Gettysburg: Characters</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-of-gettysburg-details.html"><b>Battle of Gettysburg: Details</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-of-gettysburg-trivia.html"><b>Battle of Gettysburg: Trivia</b></a></li></ul></div></div></div></div>John Dhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/08877708667095519724noreply@blogger.comtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-3349173050823601191.post-45418514121765872252011-12-22T22:48:00.000-08:002012-01-11T09:50:36.521-08:00Battle of Gettysburg: Characters<b>Characters</b><br /><br /><u><b>Union</b></u><br /><br /><b>1) George G. Meade (Union)</b><br /><br />Commander that took over the Union troop three days before Gettysburg.<br /><br />In the early morning hours of June 28, 1863, a messenger from President Abraham Lincoln arrived to inform Meade of his appointment as Hooker's replacement. Meade was taken by surprise and later wrote to his wife that when the officer entered his tent to wake him, he assumed that Army politics had caught up with him and he was being arrested. He had not actively sought command and was not the president's first choice.<br /><br /><b>2) Col. Strong Vincent (Union)</b><br /><br />Col. Strong Vincent (Union), <b>age 26</b>, successfully defended Little Round Top. <b>He was mortally wounded in battle and died on July 7</b>, but not before receiving a deathbed promotion to brigadier general. Vincent was born in Waterford, Pennsylvania, son of iron foundryman. He attended Trinity College and Harvard University, graduating in 1859. He <b>practiced law in Erie, Pennsylvania</b>. He had started the Gettysburg Campaign knowing that <b>his young wife, Elizabeth H. Carter, whom he had married on the day he enlisted in the army, was pregnant with their first child. He had written her, "If I fall, remember you have given your husband to the most righteous cause that ever widowed a woman."</b><br /><br />Strong Vincent is buried in Erie Cemetery in Erie. He is memorialized by a statue on the 83rd Pennsylvania monument on Little Round Top, by a statue erected in 1997 at Blasco Memorial Library, Erie, and by Strong Vincent High School in Erie.<br /><br /><b>3) Col. Dan Sickles (Union)</b><br /><br />Made key mistake at the Peach Orchard (Day 2).<br /><br /><b>A cannonball caught <u>Sickles</u> (Union General) in the right leg. He was carried off in a stretcher, sitting up and puffing on his cigar, attempting to encourage his men. That evening his leg was amputated</b>, and he returned to <u>Washington, D.C.</u><br /><br />In <b>1852, he married</b> Teresa Bagioli against the wishes of both families—<b>he was 33, she only 15</b>.<br /><br /><b>Sickles was involved in a number of public scandals, most notably the killing of his wife's lover</b>, <u>Philip Barton Key II, son of Francis Scott Key</u> (writer of the Star Spangled Banner) in <b>1859 across the street from the White House. He was acquitted with the first use of <u>temporary insanity</u> as a legal defense in U.S. history. His lawyers argued that Sickles had been driven insane by his wife's infidelity, and thus was out of his mind when he shot Key.</b><br /><br />Sickles insubordinately moved his III Corps to a position in which it was <b>virtually destroyed</b>, an action that continues to generate controversy.<br /><br /><b><u>Confederate</u></b><br /><br /><b>4) Robert E. Lee (Confederate)</b><br /><br />Confederate Leader that had established a reputation as an almost invincible general going into Gettysburg. It’s been speculated that Lee had chest pains due to angina at the time.<br /><br />A West Point graduate<br /><br />In early 1861, <b>President Abraham Lincoln invited Lee to take command of the entire Union Army.</b><br /><br /><b>5) Misc. Confederate Solider at Little Round Top (Confederate)</b><br /><br />Confederate troops were ordered to take the hill. The <b>men were exhausted, having marched more than 20 miles that day to reach this point. The day was hot and their canteens were empty</b>; the order to move out reached them before they could refill their water.<br /><br />Confederate troops here were overcome by a Union <b>bayonet charge</b> and <b>captured as prisoners.</b><br /><br /><b>6) Gen. William Barksdale (Confederate)</b><br /><br />Gen. Barksdale (Confederate) at the Peach Orchard (Day 2) <b>led the charge on horseback, long hair flowing in the wind, sword waving in the air</b>. At about <b>5:30 p.m.</b>, Barksdale's Brigade <b>burst from the woods and started an irresistible assault, which has been described as one of the most breathtaking spectacles of the Civil War</b>. A Union colonel was quoted as saying, "It was the grandest charge that was ever made by mortal man."<br /><br />Barksdale was <b>wounded in his left knee, followed by a cannonball to his left foot, and finally was hit by another bullet to his chest, knocking him off his horse.</b> He told his aide, W.R. Boyd, "I am killed! <b>Tell my wife and children that I died fighting at my post." His troops were forced to leave him for dead on the field</b> and he died the next morning in a Union field hospital.<br /><br />A lawyer, newspaper editor, and <u>U.S. Congressman</u> in civilian life.<br /><br />Born and raised in Tennessee. Captain in the <b>Mexican War</b> (1846-1848).<br /><br />Editor of a pro-slavery newspaper. He was considered to be one of the most ferocious of all the <u>"Fire-Eaters"</u> in the House of Representatives.<br /><br /><b>Fire-Eaters</b> refers to a group of extremist <b>pro-slavery politicians</b> from the <b>South</b> who urged the separation of southern states into a new nation<br /><br /><b><u>Other</u></b><br /><br /><b>7) Ginnie “Jennie” Wade (other)</b><br /><br />There was <b>only one documented civilian death during the battle: Ginnie Wade (also widely known as Jennie), 20 years old, was hit by a stray bullet that passed through her kitchen in town while she was making bread.</b><br /><br />Jennie worked as a seamstress with her mother in their house on Breckenridge Street while her father was in a mental asylum.<br /><br />She may have been engaged to Johnston Hastings "Jack" Skelly, a corporal in the 87th Pennsylvania, who had been wounded two weeks earlier in the Battle of Winchester.<br /><br />Jennie, her mother, and two younger brothers left their home in central Gettysburg and traveled to the house of her sister Georgia Anna Wade McClellan at 528 Baltimore Street to assist her and her newborn child. Jennie was hit by a stray bullet on Day 3 of the battle.<br /><br />About <b>8:30 a.m. on July 3, Ginnie was kneading dough for bread when a Minié ball traveled through the kitchen door of her sister's house and hit her. It pierced her left shoulder blade, went through her heart, and ended up in her corset. She was killed instantly</b>. While it is <b>uncertain which side fired the fatal shot</b>, some authors have attributed it to an unknown Confederate sharpshooter.<br /><br />Shortly afterward, three Union soldiers discovered the body and told the rest of the family. They temporarily buried Ginnie's body in the back yard of the McClellan house, in a coffin originally intended for a Confederate officer. Day after the battle, her mother baked 15 loaves of bread with the dough Ginnie had kneaded.<br /><br /><b><u>Misc.</u></b><br /><br /><b>8) Priest William Corby (Misc.)</b><br /><ul><li>a <b>priest of the Congregation of Holy Cross. Corby is perhaps best known for his giving general absolution on the battle field.</b></li><li>also <b>served twice as President of the University of Notre Dame. The school's Corby Hall is named for him.</b></li><li><b>Widely remembered among military chaplains and celebrated by Irish-American fraternal organizations</b>, his statue with right hand raised in the gesture of blessing was the first statue of a non-general erected on the Gettysburg Battlefield.</li></ul><p><span style="font-weight: bold;font-size:130%;" ><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other </span><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/11/battle-of-gettysburg.html">Battle of Gettysburg</a></span><span style="font-size:130%;"><span style="font-weight: bold;"> sections: </span></span></p><div class="post-body entry-content" id="post-body-2242868653052243807"><ul><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-of-gettysburg-overview.html"><b>Battle of Gettysburg: Overview</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-of-gettysburg-summary.html"><b>Battle of Gettysburg: Summary</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-of-gettysburg-details.html"><b>Battle of Gettysburg: Details</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-of-gettysburg-trivia.html"><b>Battle of Gettysburg: Trivia</b></a></li></ul></div>John Dhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/08877708667095519724noreply@blogger.comtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-3349173050823601191.post-12885263458618714562011-12-21T22:48:00.000-08:002012-01-11T09:50:26.429-08:00Battle of Gettysburg: Details<b>Setup - South</b><br /><br />Robert E. Lee (Confederate) had established a reputation as an almost invincible general. Feeling confident, Lee decided to push north into Pennsylvania so his 72,000 man army could threaten Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Washington. A strong motivation for storming critical Union territory was to strengthen the growing peace movement amongst Northern residents. The peace movement would likely result in the secession of the South.<br /><br />In mid-June a Southern Army crossed the Potomac River from Virginia (Southern Territory) into Maryland (Northern Territory) and continued through the Shenandoah Valley.<br /><br /><b>Setup - North</b><br /><br />In an effort to intercept the Southerners moving into Harrisburg en route to Philadelphia President Lincoln had Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker move his army in pursuit and then relieved Hooker in favor of George G. Meade just three days before the battle. Hooker had suffered a stunning defeat to General Lee on May 6 at the Battle of Chancellorsville.<br /><br /><b>Battle Day 1</b><br /><br />Elements of the two armies initially collided at Gettysburg on July 1, 1863. Lee’s objective being to engage the Union army and destroy it.<br /><br />Initially a Union cavalry division under Brig. Gen. John Buford defended low ridges to the NW of town, and was soon reinforced with two corps of Union infantry.<br /><br />However, two large Confederate corps assaulted them from the northwest and north, collapsing the hastily developed Union lines, sending the Union defenders retreating through the streets of town to the hills just to the south.<br /><br /><b>Day 1 goes to the confederates.</b><br /><br /><b>Day 2</b><br /><br />Most of both armies had assembled around Gettysburg.<br /><br />In the late afternoon Lee launched a heavy assault on the Union’s left flank, and fierce fighting raged at (1) Little Round Top, (2) Wheatfield, (3) Devil’s Den, and the (4)Peach Orchard:<br /><br /><b>Little Round Top</b> - the smaller of two rocky hills to the south (Note: not called Little Round Top at the time)<br /><br /><b>Col. Strong Vincent (Union)</b> successfully defended Little Round Top.<br /><br />The 20th Maine Volunteer Infantry Regiment, commanded by Col. Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain, fought the most famous engagement there, <b>culminating in a dramatic downhill bayonet charge that is one of the most well-known actions at Gettysburg</b> and in the American Civil War.<br /><br />Confederate troops were ordered to take the hill. The <b>men were exhausted, having marched more than 20 miles that day to reach this point. The day was hot and their canteens were empty</b>; the order to move out reached them before they could refill their water.<br /><br />On the final Union charge, knowing that <b>the men were out of ammunition</b>, that numbers were being depleted, and further knowing that another charge could not be repulsed, the Union ordered a maneuver that was considered unusual for the day: ordered his left flank, which had been pulled back, to <b>advance with bayonets</b> in a "right-wheel forward" maneuver. As soon as they were in line with the rest of the regiment, the remainder of the regiment charged, akin to a door swinging shut. This simultaneous frontal assault and flanking maneuver halted and captured a good portion of the Confederates.<br /><br /><b>The Wheatfield,</b><br /><br />The fighting here, consisting of numerous confusing attacks and counterattacks over two hours by eleven brigades, earned the field the nickname <b>"Bloody Wheatfield."</b><br /><br />The <b>Confederates had fought six brigades against 13 (somewhat smaller) Federal brigades, and of the 20,444 men engaged, about 30% were casualties.</b> Some of the wounded managed to crawl to Plum Run but could not cross it. The <b>river ran red with their blood.</b><br /><br />A Union brigade was sent in to delay the Confederate assault, and they did this effectively in <b>vicious hand-to-hand combat.</b><br /><br /><b><u>Devil's Den</u></b><br /><br />Devil's Den was the southern end of Houck's Ridge, a modest elevation on the northwest side of Plum Run Valley, made <b>distinctive by piles of huge boulders.</b><br /><br />For over an hour both sides participated in a standup fight of unusual ferocity.<br /><br /><b>In the first 30 minutes, the 20th Indiana lost more than half of its men. Its colonel, John Wheeler, was killed and its lieutenant colonel wounded</b>. The 86th New York <b>also lost its commander</b>. The <b>commander</b> of the 3rd Arkansas <b>fell wounded, one of 182 casualties</b> in his regiment.<br /><br /><b>Union leaders mounted their horses</b> despite the protests of soldiers who urged them to lead more safely on foot. Maj. Cromwell <b>said, "The men must see us today."</b><br /><br />After a second wave assault Union General Régis de Trobriand wrote that <b>the Confederates "converged on me like an avalanche, but we piled all the dead and wounded men in our front."</b><br /><br />Three <b>10-pound Parrott rifles were lost to the Confederates, and they were used against Union troops the next day.</b><br /><br /><b>Confederate men spent the next 22 hours on Devil's Den, firing across the Valley of Death</b> on Union troops massed on Little Round Top.<br /><br />Assaults were <b>classic, tough infantry fights</b>. Of 2,423 Union troops engaged, there were 821 casualties (138 killed, 548 wounded, 135 missing); the 5,525 Confederates lost 1,814 (329, 1,107, 378).<br /><br /><u><b>Peach Orchard:</b></u><br /><br /><b>Someone unknown shouted a false command, and the attacking regiments turned to their right</b>, toward the Wheatfield, which presented their left flank to the batteries. Kershaw later wrote, <b>"Hundreds of the bravest and best men of Carolina fell, victims of this fatal blunder."</b><br /><br />Gen. Barksdale (Confederate) <b>led the charge on horseback, long hair flowing in the wind, sword waving in the air.</b><br /><br />Sickles (Union General) insubordinately moved his III Corps to a position in which it was <b>virtually destroyed</b>, an action that continues to generate controversy.<br /><br />The Union "retired by prolonge," a technique rarely used in which the <b>cannon was dragged backwards as it fired rapidly</b>, the movement aided by the gun's recoil.<br /><br />Maj. Gen. John Bell Hood stood in his stirrups at the front of the Texas Brigade and <b>shouted, "Fix bayonets, my brave Texans! Forward and take those heights!"</b> Minutes later Hood was felled by an artillery shell bursting overhead, severely wounding his left arm and putting him out of action.<br /><br />On the Union right, demonstrations escalated into full-scale assaults on Culp's Hill and Cemetery Hill. All across the battlefield, <b>despite significant losses, the Union defenders held their lines.</b><br /><br /><b>Battle Day 3</b><br /><br />General Lee wished to renew the attack on Day 3 using the same basic plan as the previous day. However, <b>before Confederates were ready, Union troops started a dawn artillery bombardment against the Confederates on Culp's Hill</b> in an effort to regain a portion of the ground lost the day before. The <b>Confederates attacked at 4 a.m., and the second fight for Culp's Hill ended around 11 a.m., after some seven hours of bitter combat.</b><br /><br />On the third day of battle, July 3, fighting resumed on Culp's Hill, and cavalry battles raged to the east and south, but the <b>main event was a dramatic infantry assault by 12,500 Confederates</b> against the center of the Union line on Cemetery Ridge, known as Pickett's Charge. The charge was repulsed by Union rifle and artillery fire, at great losses to the Confederate army.<br /><br /><b>Around 1 p.m., from 150 to 170 Confederate guns began an artillery bombardment that was probably the largest of the war. In order to save valuable ammunition for the infantry attack that they knew would follow, the Union Army at first did not return the enemy's fire. After waiting about 15 minutes, about 80 Union cannons added to the noise. The Confederates were critically low on artillery ammunition</b>, and the cannonade did not significantly affect the Union position. Around <b>3 p.m.</b>, the cannon fire subsided, and <b>12,500 Southern soldiers stepped from the ridgeline and advanced the three-quarters of a mile to Cemetery Ridge in what is known to history as "Pickett's Charge" This marked the "High-water mark of the Confederacy",</b><br /><br /><b>Pickett's Charge</b> was an infantry assault ordered by Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee. Its futility was predicted by the charge's commander, Lt. Gen. James Longstreet, and it was arguably an avoidable mistake from which the Southern war effort never fully recovered psychologically.<br /><br /><b>The Union opened fire on the Confederate infantry during their approach with devastating results.</b> Nearly half of the attackers did not return to their own lines.<br /><br />There were <b>two significant cavalry engagements on Day 3.</b><br /><br /><b>Three miles east of Gettysburg</b>, in what is now called <b>"East Cavalry Field"</b><br /><br />Confederate and Union cavalries engaged. <b>A lengthy mounted (horseback) battle, including hand-to-hand sabre combat, ensued.</b><br /><br /><b>Conclusion</b><br /><br /><b>Confederate Retreat</b><br /><br />The <b>armies stared at one another in a heavy rain across the bloody fields on July 4, the same day of the surrendered to Union Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant.</b><br /><br /><b>Both armies began to collect their remaining wounded and bury some of the dead. A proposal by Confederate Leader Robert E. Lee for a prisoner exchange was rejected.</b><br /><br />Lee started his Army in motion <b>late the evening of July 4.</b><br /><br /><b>Post Battle</b><br /><br />The <b>two armies suffered between 46,000 and 51,000 casualties. Union casualties were 23,055</b> (3,155 killed, 14,531 wounded, 5,369 captured or missing), while Confederate casualties are more difficult to estimate. <b>Many authors have referred to as many as 28,000 overall (Confederate) casualties</b>, but Busey and Martin's more recent definitive 2005 work, Regimental Strengths and Losses, documents 23,231 (4,708 killed, 12,693 wounded, 5,830 captured or missing).<br /><br />Nearly <b>8,000 had been killed outright; these bodies, lying in the hot summer sun, needed to be buried quickly. Over 3,000 horse carcasses were burned in a series of piles south of town; townsfolk became violently ill from the stench.</b><br /><br />Although <b>not seen as overwhelmingly significant at the time, particularly since the war continued for almost two years</b>, in retrospect it has often been cited as the "turning point."<br /><br />The <b>news of the Union victory electrified the North</b>. A headline in The Philadelphia Inquirer proclaimed <b>"VICTORY! WATERLOOECLIPSED!"</b> New York diarist George Templeton Strong wrote:<br /><br />The <b>results of this victory are priceless</b>. ... The charm of <b>Robert E. Lee's invincibility is broken</b>. The Army of the Potomac has at last found a general that can handle it, and has stood nobly up to its terrible work in spite of its long disheartening list of hard-fought failures. ...Copperheads are palsied and dumb for the moment at least. ... <b>Government is strengthened four-fold at home and abroad.</b><br /><br />The <b>Confederates had lost politically as well as militarily.</b><br /><br />When the news reached London, <b>any lingering hopes of European recognition of the Confederacy were finally abandoned.</b><br /><br />That November, President Lincoln used the dedication ceremony for the Gettysburg National Cemetery to honor the fallen Union soldiers and redefine the purpose of the war in his historic Gettysburg Address.<br /><br /><span style="font-weight: bold;font-size:130%;" ><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other </span><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/11/battle-of-gettysburg.html">Battle of Gettysburg</a></span><span style="font-size:130%;"><span style="font-weight: bold;"> sections: </span></span><div class="post-body entry-content" id="post-body-2242868653052243807"><ul><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-of-gettysburg-overview.html"><b>Battle of Gettysburg: Overview</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-of-gettysburg-summary.html"><b>Battle of Gettysburg: Summary</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-of-gettysburg-characters.html"><b>Battle of Gettysburg: Characters</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-of-gettysburg-trivia.html"><b>Battle of Gettysburg: Trivia</b></a></li></ul></div>John Dhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/08877708667095519724noreply@blogger.comtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-3349173050823601191.post-20240425096781640642011-12-20T22:48:00.000-08:002012-01-11T09:50:11.323-08:00Battle of Gettysburg: Trivia<b>Misc.</b><br /><br />The 1993 movie Gettysburg focused primarily on the actions of Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain, John Buford, Robert E. Lee, and James Longstreet during the battle. The first day focused on Buford's cavalry defense, the second day on Chamberlain's defense at Little Round Top, and the third day on Pickett's Charge.<br />______________________________________________<br /><br />The most controversial of the Confederate actions as they invaded the North was the <b>seizure of some 40 northern African Americans</b>, a few of whom were escaped fugitive slaves but most freemen. <b>They were sent south into slavery under guard.</b><br /><br /><span style="font-weight: bold;font-size:130%;" ><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other </span><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/11/battle-of-gettysburg.html">Battle of Gettysburg</a></span><span style="font-size:130%;"><span style="font-weight: bold;"> sections: </span></span><div class="post-body entry-content" id="post-body-2242868653052243807"><ul><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-of-gettysburg-overview.html"><b>Battle of Gettysburg: Overview</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-of-gettysburg-summary.html"><b>Battle of Gettysburg: Summary</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-of-gettysburg-characters.html"><b>Battle of Gettysburg: Characters</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-of-gettysburg-details.html"><b>Battle of Gettysburg: Details</b></a></li></ul></div>John Dhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/08877708667095519724noreply@blogger.comtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-3349173050823601191.post-71759279714343430412011-12-19T23:34:00.000-08:002012-01-11T09:47:30.897-08:00Battle of Shiloh: Overview<u>BATTLE OF SHILOH (april 6-7 1862 <b>UNION</b>)</u><br /><em>Confederate forces launched a surprise attack on Ulysses S. Grant while in the Tennessee river but he was still able to prevail. This battle took place in Shiloh, Tennessee and resulted in approximately 23,746 casualties of which 13,047 were union soldiers. Because of tactical reasons, the union was still considered victorious.</em><br /><br /><b>When?</b><br /><br />April 6-7, 1862<br /><br /><b>Where?</b><br /><br />Hardin County, Tennessee (Southwestern Tennessee @ Alabama / Mississippi border)<br /><br /><b>Who won the Battle of Shiloh?</b><br /><br />Near draw in the Battle of Shiloh, but victory credited to Union for tactical reasons<br /><br /><b>What happened?</b><br /><br />Confederate forces launched a surprise attack on Ulysses S. Grant while in the Tennessee river but he was still able to prevail.<br /><br /><b>What does Shiloh mean?</b><br /><br /><b>Union camp was near a small log church named Shiloh</b> (the Hebrew word that means <b>"place of peace"</b>)<br /><br /><b>Why is this important?</b><br /><br />Union staved off surprise attack in Southern territory, thus allowing further push into Mississippi.<br /><br /><span style="font-size:130%;"><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other </span></span><span style="font-weight: bold;font-size:130%;" ><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/11/battle-of-shiloh.html">Battle of Shiloh</a></span><span style="font-size:130%;"><span style="font-weight: bold;"> sections:</span></span><div class="post-body entry-content" id="post-body-2242868653052243807"><ul><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-of-shiloh-summary.html"><b>Battle of Shiloh: Summary</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-of-shiloh-characters.html"><b>Battle of Shiloh: Characters</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-of-shiloh-details.html"><b>Battle of Shiloh: Details</b></a></li></ul></div>John Dhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/08877708667095519724noreply@blogger.comtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-3349173050823601191.post-87181074532567304232011-12-18T23:34:00.000-08:002012-01-11T09:47:42.734-08:00Battle of Shiloh: Summary<b>Summary</b><br /><br />A Union army under Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant had moved via the Tennessee River <b>deep into Tennessee</b> and was encamped.<br /><br />Confederate General Albert Sidney Johnson was <b>considered by Confederate President Jefferson Davis to be the finest general officer in the Confederacy before the emergence of Robert E. Lee, he was killed early in the Civil War at the Battle of Shiloh (interesting story of how he died – see Characters tab) and was the highest ranking officer, Union or Confederate, killed during the entire war.</b> Davis believed the loss of Johnston "was the turning point of our fate".<br /><br />Confederate forces under Generals Albert Sidney Johnston and P. G. T. Beauregard launched a surprise attack on Grant there. The Confederates achieved considerable success on the first day, but were ultimately defeated on the second day.<br /><br />On the first day of the battle, the <b>Confederates struck with the intention of driving the Union defenders away from the river and into the swamps</b> of Owl Creek to the west, hoping to defeat Grant's Army of the Tennessee before the anticipated arrival of backups. <b>Grant’s men however fell back to the northeast, in the direction of Pittsburg Landing, as opposed to the swamps in the west.</b><br /><br /><b>Union reinforcements arrived in the evening and turned the tide the next morning. When a Union counterattack was launched the Confederates were forced to retreat from the bloodiest battle in US history up to that point.</b><br /><br />This <b>ended Confederate hopes of blocking the Union from advancing into Northern Mississippi.<br /><br /></b><span style="font-size:130%;"><span style="font-weight: bold;">Other </span></span><span style="font-weight: bold;font-size:130%;" ><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/11/battle-of-shiloh.html">Battle of Shiloh</a></span><span style="font-size:130%;"><span style="font-weight: bold;"> sections: </span></span><div class="post-body entry-content" id="post-body-2242868653052243807"><ul><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-of-shiloh-overview.html"><b>Battle of Shiloh: Overview</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-of-shiloh-characters.html"><b>Battle of Shiloh: Characters</b></a></li><br /><li><a href="https://civilwarbattlehistory.com/2011/12/battle-of-shiloh-details.html"><b>Battle of Shiloh: Details</b></a></li></ul></div>John Dhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/08877708667095519724noreply@blogger.com